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Effectively Managing Nonprofit Organizations
Richard L. Edwards and John A. Yankey
ISBN: 0-87101-369-X. 2006. Item #369X. 504 pages.

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A resource guide primarily designed for mid- and upper-level managers working in nonprofit organizations, Effectively Managing Nonprofit Organizations equips managers to identify and acquire the technical, human relations, and conceptual skills and the various competencies needed to successfully lead nonprofit organizations.

Acknowledgments
Introduction

Part I: THE ORGANIZING FRAMEWORK


Chapter 1: Managing Effectively in an Environment of Competing Values
Richard L. Edwards and David M. Austin

Part II: BOUNDARY-SPANNING SKILLS


Chapter 2: Building the Capacity to Lead Innovation
Douglas C. Eadie

Chapter 3: Writing Winning Proposals
Christine E. Henry

Chapter 4: Developing a Sustainable Fundraising Program
Elizabeth A. S. Benefield and Richard L. Edwards

Chapter 5: Cultivating Effective Media Relationships and Marketing
Todd Cohen

Chapter 6: Managing Public Policy Advocacy and Government Relations
Emily D. Pelton and Richard E. Baznik

Part III: HUMAN RELATIONS SKILLS


Chapter 7: Managing Human Resources
Kimberly Strom-Gottfried

Chapter 8: Managing Diversity
Susan L. Parish, M. Jennifer Ellison, and Janice K. Parish

Chapter 9: Designing and Sustaining Effective Organizational Teams
Darlyne Bailey and S. Kay Dunlap

Chapter 10: Producing High-Quality Group Decisions
John E. Tropman

Chapter 11: Managing Volunteers Effectively
Alice Korngold, Elizabeth Hosler Voudouris, and Jeff Griffiths

Part IV: COORDINATING SKILLS


Chapter 12: Managing the Finances of Nonprofit Organizations
Marci S. Thomas

Chapter 13: Managing Liability and Risk in Nonprofit Settings
Paul A. Kurzman

Chapter 14: Designing New Approaches to Program Evaluation
Andrea Meier and Charles L. Usher

Chapter 15: Assessing, Planning, and Managing Information Technology
Laura I. Zimmerman and Andrew Broughton

Part V: DIRECTING SKILLS


Chapter 16: Strengthening Board Performance
Thomas P. Holland

Chapter 17: Planning and Managing Strategically
Douglas C. Eadie

Chapter 18: Creating and Managing Strategic Alliances
David Campbell, Barbara Jacobus, and John A. Yankey

Chapter 19: Consulting With Nonprofit Organizations: Roles, Processes, and Effectiveness
John A. Yankey and Carol K. Willenv

Part VI: LEADERSHIP SKILLS FOR TURBULENT TIMES


Chapter 20: Managing Financial Uncertainty
Daniel A. Lebold and Richard L. Edwards

Chapter 21: Redefining Leadership in a Community-Impact Organization: A Case Study of Reframing CEO Skills Amid Transformational Change
Brooke Manville

Appendix A: A Sampling of Web Sites Related to Nonprofit Management
Compiled by Jeffrey A. Edwards and Shannon Sellers-Harty

Index
About the Editors
About the Contributors
If there is one constant in nonprofit management today, it is the need to deal with change. Contributing to this environment are changing conditions, such as increased demands for services provided by nonprofits; evolving service technologies; and reduced government appropriations for human services, the arts, and the humanities. However, also contributing to this environment are developments in management in the for-profit arena.

In the early 1980s, traditional approaches to American management began to be questioned. The characteristics of successful businesses and managers were identified, and questions were raised about whether management education programs were adequately preparing leaders for the realities of contemporary management. A major business school curriculum study (Porter & McKibbin, 1988) suggested that management education programs needed to place greater emphasis on human skills. Quinn, Faerman, Thompson, and McGrath (1990) noted that:

What is now available in management education is necessary but insufficient. All . . . modern organizations, as never before, and even at the lowest levels, are in need of competent managerial leaders. They want technical ability but they also want more. They want people who can survive and help organizations prosper in a world of constant change and intense competition. This means both technical competence and interpersonal excellence. (p. v)

Numerous books have been written about what makes for excellence, high productivity, and overall success (for example, Blake, Mouton, & Allen, 1987; Kanter, 1983; Lawler, 1986; Ouchi, 1981; Peters & Waterman, 1982). The management of nonprofit organizations is influenced greatly by what is happening in the for-profit or business sector. Today in for-profit organizations there is increasing stress on excellence, leadership, and accountability, as well as on human relations skills. Nonprofit managers must identify and acquire the technical, human relations, and conceptual skills and the various competencies needed to successfully lead nonprofit organizations in the years ahead.

Nonprofit managers often experience some difficulty using texts and training materials that were developed for the for-profit sector. This book addresses the particular needs of nonprofit managers. The content is aimed primarily at mid- and upper-level managers who can benefit from it directly as they strive daily to attain excellence, as well as indirectly as they help those they supervise do a better job of managing. Although this book is directed mostly to managers, it also will be useful to students who are studying nonprofit or public management.

Organizing Framework


The organizing framework for this book is a metatheoretical model of organizational and managerial effectiveness called the "competing values framework" (Edwards, 1987, 1990; Edwards, Faerman, & McGrath, 1986; Edwards & Yankey, 1991; Faerman, Quinn, & Thompson, 1987; Quinn, 1984, 1988; Quinn et al., 1990; Quinn & Rohrbaugh, 1981, 1983). This model, which is described more fully in Chapter 1, serves to integrate four contrasting sets of management skills: boundary-spanning, human relations, coordinating, and directing. Each set has two inherent roles that managers must play to be successful in that particular sphere of organizational activity. The eight roles are those of broker, innovator, mentor, facilitator, monitor, coordinator, producer, and director.

The competing values framework helps explicate that managers must function in a world of competing values in which their daily activities usually do not represent a choice between something "good" and something "bad." Rather, most choices that managers must make are between two or more "goods" or values. As used in this book, the competing values framework helps managers consider the complexity and multiplicity of their roles within their organizations and stresses that the performance of a management role is rarely an either-or situation.

The first section of the book provides overviews of the competing values framework. The remaining chapters are organized into five sections. The first four sections relate to the four major sets of skills and the eight managerial roles identified in the competing values framework. The final section deals with the issue of leadership skills needed to manage in turbulent times, under conditions of financial uncertainty and changing organizational missions. Also included is an appendix that contains Web sites that may be of interest to nonprofit managers.

The validity and importance of the eight roles have been demonstrated in several empirical studies. One study (Quinn, Denison, & Hooijberg, 1989) of more than 700 managers revealed that the measures of the eight roles met standard validity tests and that the roles appear in the four indicated quadrants. Another study (Pauchant, Nilles, Sawy, & Mohrman, 1989) involving more than 900 managers also found support for the eight roles and indicated that of 36 possible roles, these eight were considered the most important ones to be performed by managers. Still another study (Quinn, 1988) found that managers who did not perform these eight roles well were considered ineffective, whereas those who did perform these roles well were considered very effective.

Learning Approach


This book is designed to be used in a number of ways. It can be used as an individualized learning tool, as a primary text for management-training programs or academic courses, or as a supplement to other texts. The chapters are organized in a way that facilitates the development of competencies needed to perform the various managerial roles identified in the book. The structure of the chapters represents a variation of a learning model developed by Whetten and Cameron (1984), which involves assessment, learning, analysis, practice, and application. The first chapter includes an assessment instrument that enables readers to gain insight into their relative strengths and weaknesses in relation to the eight management roles. Each chapter contains a narrative section that provides information about particular topics and one or more skills - application exercises that provide opportunities to apply the material to realistic job situations.

This book is a revision and expansion of two earlier books, Skills for Effective Human Services Management (Edwards & Yankey, 1991) and Skills for Effective Management of Nonprofit Organizations (Edwards, Yankey, & Altpeter, 1998). The topics addressed in the earlier versions and the present edition were identified as a result of the editors’ experiences as hands-on managers, consultants, trainers, and educators. The array of topics covers many competencies that are not typically found in a single management book but that are vitally important in the real world of nonprofit management. The authors are a diverse group in terms of gender, race, and ethnicity, and they bring a wealth of real-world management experience.

Finally, the editors believe that effective management requires, in addition to a wide range of technical and human relations skills, a healthy sense of humor. Thus, a number of cartoons have been included in the book.
Richard L. Edwards, PhD, ACSW, is dean and professor in the School of Social Work at Rutgers: The State University of New Jersey. Dr. Edwards was formerly dean of the School of Social Work and interim provost at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and also dean of the Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. He has worked in a variety of nonprofit and public organizations as a supervisor and manager and has served on the boards of directors of several nonprofits. In addition, he is a senior consultant with Doug Eadie and Company, a private consulting firm specializing in nonprofits. A frequent contributor to the management literature, he is coauthor of Building a Strong Foundation: Fundraising for Nonprofits and was editor-in-chief of The Encyclopedia of Social Work – 19th Edition. He is a former president of the National Association of Social Workers.

John A. Yankey, PhD, is Leonard W. Mayo Professor Emeritus of Family and Child Welfare at the Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. Dr. Yankey is a nationally recognized expert in the areas of strategic planning and developing strategic alliances. He continues to teach courses in both subjects at the Mandel School and at the Mandel Center for Nonprofit Organizations. He is an instructor in several state and national leadership development programs for public sector and nonprofit leaders, as well as a consultant to a wide range of organizations throughout the United States. He is coauthor of Building a Strong Foundation: Fundraising for Nonprofits and a frequent contributor to the nonprofit management literature.